Registered & Protected

AP Government Review #5B: Institutions of National Government- Presidency 

Key Terms: 

  1. 527 Group: tax-exempt organization created to influence the political process; not regulated by the Federal Election Commission because they do not coordinate their activities with a candidate/party
  2. Bureaucracy: a large complex organization of appointed officials
  3. Closed Primary: a primary in which voters must be affiliated with the party before the election and are not allowed to split ticket vote
  4. Executive Agreement: pact between the president and the head of a foreign state; do not have to be approved by the Senate; not a part of US law and are not binding on future presidents
  5. Executive Order: a directive, order or regulation issued by the president; based on constitutional or statutory authority; have the force of law
  6. Executive Privelege: president’s power to refuse to disclose confidential information; US v. Nixon (1974) made it so that there is no constitutional guarantee of unqualified executive privelege
  7. Frontloading: recent pattern of states holding primaries early in order to maximize their media attention and political influence; 3/4 of presidential primaries are held between February and mid-March
  8. Iron Triangle: alliance among an administrative agency, interest group, and a congressional committee; provides key services, information, or policy for the others
  9. Issue Network: an iron triangle with policy experts as well
  10. Lame Duck Period: period of time in which the president’s term is about to come ito an end; presidents typically have less influence
  11. Line-Item Veto: power to veto specific dollar amounts or line items from major congressional spending bills; Supreme Court struck down this as an unconstitutional expansion of the president’s veto power
  12. Policy Agenda: set of issues and problems tha tpolicy makers consider important; mass media plays an important role in this 
  13. Soft Money: contributions to political parties for party-building activities; used to circumvent limits on hard money
  14. Veto: president’s constitutional power to reject a bill passed by Congress; Congress may override the veto with a 2/3 vote in each chamber

Presidential Primaries:

Party Conventions:

Campaign Spending:

The Electoral College:

President’s Roles:- Chief Executive

The Cabinet:

Executive Office:

White House Staff:

Veto Power:


President’s Roles:- National Security (Commander in Chief)

Presidential Roles: -Chief Diplomat

President and the Media

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